Best in Slot Guide for BfA

Frost Mage PvE Guide

Game Patch
BfA 8.3.7
Last Updated
August 20, 2020

Welcome to our World of Warcraft Frost Mage DPS Guide for Battle of Azeroth Patch 8.3 and latest Raid - Ny'alotha. Here you can explore the optimal choices of Talents, Stats, Gear (BiS), Gems, Azerite Powers & Azerite Essences, Races, Consumables, Rotation. We constantly check our guides to be up-to-date and make changes if needed.

You can use this guide as a solid starting point for building your character, while eventually, you might tweak things according to your gameplay preferences.

Boss

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Critical Strike

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Critical Strike
Versatility
Haste

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility
Critical Strike

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Versatility
Haste

Talents

15
Bone Chilling
Lonely Winter
Ice Nova
30
Glacial Insulation
Shimmer
Ice Floes
45
Incanter's Flow
Mirror Image
Rune of Power
60
Frozen Touch
Chain Reaction
Ebonbolt
75
Frigid Winds
Ice Ward
Ring of Frost
90
Freezing Rain
Splitting Ice
Comet Storm
100
Thermal Void
Ray of Frost
Glacial Spike

Stats

Mastery
Haste
Versatility

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gear

Note: This list contains basic versions of each item (with baseline item levels), you should try to get the highest possible iLvL of each item listed here.

Back
Feet
Head
Legs
Neck
Ring
Chest
Hands
Waist
Wrist
Trinket
Main Hand
Shoulders

Gem

Races

Human
Troll
Void Elf

Gem

Races

Troll
Human
Blood Elf

Gem

Races

Human
Troll
Void Elf

Gem

Races

Void Elf
Troll
Human

Gem

Races

Troll
Human
Void Elf

Gem

Races

Void Elf
Troll
Human

Gem

Races

Blood Elf
Human
Troll

Gem

Races

Troll
Human
Void Elf

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Consumables

Food
Rune
Flask
Potion
Ring enchant
Weapon enchant
Healing Potion

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Rotation

Use Potion
Use Potion: Use your potion with Icy Veins
Use Racial Active Buff: Use with Icy Veins
Use Trinkets: Try to use trinkets during Icy Veins
Use Ice Lance right after a Brain Freeze Flurry
Cast Flurry right after Ebonbolt to shatter the Ebonbolt. Ebonbolt will also give you Brain Freeze, so you always want to do this.
With Brain Freeze right after Glacial Spike to shatter the Glacial Spike
Frozen Orb is always worth using, but try to save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again.
Comet Storm is worth using against a single target, but save it if AoE will be available before it is ready again
Against 3+ targets
With Brain Freeze right after a Frostbolt to Shatter the Frostbolt. Only if you have less than 4 Icicles - save Brain Freeze for Glacial Spike if you have 4+.
With Fingers of Frost up
When you have Brain Freeze so that you can follow it with Flurry to shatter the Glacial Spike
If you're moving and can't cast anything else use Ice Lance.

Frequently Asked Questions

How is this Guide useful?
We use algorithms to parse big data chunks from Top 1% Raiders using various public World of Warcraft sources such as the official Blizzard API and WarcraftLogs. We believe that statistics is a very reliable method for determining solid choices for end-game optimization.
Why do you show different recommendations for each boss?
There is usually a slight divergence in optimal choices for each given boss, so we decided to cover that in our guides. However, we also provide you with the 'All Stars' option which is the summary of most popular choices for all bosses together, in case you want the 'set it and forget it' approach (even though in some cases you might end up sacrificing a bit of your performance).